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I CHING, The Illustrated Primer. Copyright 1986 - 2013; Barry R. Trosper; California, USA.
WELCOME TO OUR I CHING ON LINE VOCABULARY
from I Ching, the Illustrated Primer ISBN 0-939231-01-8 and ISBN 0-939231-02-6.(IChing90)
 
"WORDS are anchors that restrict thought."
The words are unimportant. Producing the correct thought is the goal of this vocabulary.

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ASPIRATIONS. This is character associated with the 2nd line of a Hexagram --- the desires, goals, ambitions, and "Aspirations" which contribute to the
ARMY. In antiquity the "Army" was represented as a "Social" whole. All members contributed, particularly in defense. The young and strong men were the warriors; the nobility was required to contribute foodstuffs and material; the women maintained armaments; and the infirm, old, or very young maintained supplies and fodder. Even though feudal, this system insured that the "Army" was united in purpose.
ATTAINMENT. Accomplishment of particular goals and objectives, not intended to be all-encompassing as "Success."
AUTHORITY. The character associated with the 5th Line of a Hexagram --- the position of precipitating and continuing action, enforcing obedience, or issuing commands. In the I CHING authority is exercised as criticism. (This is also the "King" Line.)
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BA KUA. Literally 'Eight Lines,' but the BA KUA in the I CHING is actually the representation of Fu Hsi's Eight Trigrams. This is also frequently seen as an icon (usually green and red in color with a circular mirror in the middle) that is hung is some propitious place so as to invite Good Fortune, or to ward off Bad Fortune.
BLAME. The consequential attitude of others, or one's own, toward adverse behavior or acts --- generally manifested as criticism.
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CATHAY. China, all things Chinese.
CHANGING (LINE). A Hexagram Line that in the Present State indicates that it will Change from YIN to YANG, or YANG to YIN, in the Future or Transitional representation of the Divination. For YIN, a 6, denotes a Change to YANG (to a 7); and for YANG, a 9 Changes to YIN (to an 8).
YIN, a 6  Changes to YANG, a 7
YANG, a 9  Changes to YIN, an 8
 A rare exception to this occurs when Hexagram 1, CH'IEN changes to 64, KUN (here all the 9s change to 6s) or when Hexagram 64, KUN changes to 1, CH'IEN (where all the 6s change to 9s).
 The number of Lines can vary from 0 to 6, but generally one of these Changing Lines will become the "Controlling Line." When more than one Line is changing consider situations to be progressively unstable in direct proportion to the number of Lines actually Changing. Exercise more than your usual caution when Danger or Peril is indicated.
 When evaluating the Changing Lines note that they directly relate to the Theme of the Hexagram as modifications. Each of the Changing Lines should be read, then the Controlling Line is established. This topic is detailed in "STEP 3, THE I CHING PROPHESIES" of I CHING, The Illustrated Primer.
CHAOS. A state of disorder or confusion which the I CHING associates with adversity or misfortune.
CHUAN. The Ten Wings, or Appendices, to the I CHING written by Confucius.
COMMUNITY. The collection of "individuals" which exist within a "Society." The "Community" shares and works towards common goals. Its smallest unit is viewed as the "Family" while the largest unit is viewed as "Society."
CONSTRAINT. Either the 1st or 6th Line of a Hexagram which constrains or bounds the Theme of the Hexagram. The 1st Line (Bottom or Beginning) eases into the Theme of the Hexagram while generally retaining some of the influence of the preceding Hexagram in the "Orderly Sequence." The 6th Line (Top or Ending) completes any influence indicated by the Theme and begins addressing the Theme of the following Hexagram.
CONTROLLING (LINE). This Line is an isolation of one of the Changing Lines and is also dependent upon the method of Divination. If Yarrow Sticks are used the single Changing Line is always the Controlling Line. Other methods may produce from 0 to 6 Changing Lines and one of these Lines are selected as explained in STEP 3: THE I CHING Prophesizes. The Controlling Line takes the Divination from the Recent Past/Present through the Transition and into the Future; thus the guide through the times of Change.
CORRECT. Proper behavior or attitudes which, in themselves, tend to promote "Good Fortune" or "Success."
CORRESPONDENCE. The associative condition between two Lines within a Hexagram where one is YANG and one is YIN. "Correspondence," also referred to as "Matched," relates to the 1st and 4th Lines, the 2nd and 5th Lines, and the 3rd and 6th. This occurs as the two Trigrams of the Hexagrams are compared. The condition of "Correspondence" is regarded as more favorable as both influences are present, while two YANG influences may be too overbearing and two YIN influences may not be assertive enough.
CRITICISM. The voiced opinion of others, or one's own, which may be based upon either valid evaluation or misunderstanding. It originates from generally assumed adverse acts, or where improvement can be expected.
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DIFFICULTY. Obstacles in one's path through life which require resolution. Such resolution usually adds to the character of the individual. Although many lines address "Difficulty," there are 4 Hexagrams which address "Difficulty" specifically:.
 CHUN # 3 The "Difficulty" associated with New Beginnings.
 K'AN #29 The "Difficulty" requiring great perseverance to resolve.
 CHEN #39 The "Difficulty" associated with personal restraint or injury.
 K'UN #47 The "Difficulty" associated with exhaustion, depletion, or weariness.
DISASTER. The superlative of "Misfortune" which can be associated with physical destruction as well.
DRAGON. An Eastern Dragon symbolizes the dynamic and arousing force within. Unlike the Western medieval monster. It is the genius of strength and goodness. It is the spirit of change and life itself. It awaits the time and rouses slowly, appearing in the storm clouds. Its claws are seen as forks of lightning, and its green scales are the glistening or rain and wind swept pine trees. Its voice is heard in thunder, and the Trigram CHEN, #51, Arousing and Thunder, carries the attribute of the "Dragon."
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EVIL. Intemperance or incorrectness in behavior or beliefs. A situation requiring correction. Also "Mistake" and "Fault.".
ERROR. "Misfortune" or "Disaster" associated with the character of nefariousness or treachery.
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FAILURE. A significant and counterproductive lack of accomplishment relative to the question asked of the Oracle. Existing in digress, it can only be evaluated by the individual.
FAMILY. The smallest unit of "Community," where joy, goals, assets, grief's, liabilities, etc., are commonly shared to promote "Attainment" for both the individuals within the "Family," as well as the "Family" itself. Occidental "Family" relationships are not regarded with as much importance as are their Oriental counterparts, and in a cultural sense the I CHING tends to move away from emphasis in individualism except when the "Sage" is considered.
FAULT. See "Error."
FORCE. An aggressive or assertive action to implement action or conclusion. "Force" is never applied beyond which is necessary to achieve the desired result.
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GOVERNING (LINE). A representation used in Astrological I CHING Divinations, similar to the definition of the "Ruling Line" but with other ramifications that are specific to Advanced I CHING topics.
GOOD FORTUNE. Favorable position relative to the question of the Oracle. Probably enduring and possibly financial. REMEMBER, Good Fortune can be undermined with careless or reckless attitudes.<
GREAT GOOD FORTUNE. The superlative of "Good Fortune."
GREAT UNDERTAKINGS. The superlative of "Undertakings."
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HARM. Personal, and possibly physical, damage from operation within incorrect or less than virtuous circumstances.
HELP. The support or assistance of colleagues within a "Community" to an "Individual" and specifically the "Subject" of a "Prophesy."
HSIANG. Symbol(s) of the Absolute (T'AI CHI), the Two Principles (YIN and YANG), the Four Symbols, the Eight Trigrams, and the Sixty-Four Hexagrams arranged in a specific order. This order of the HSIANG is very helpful for determining the Hexagram when the Trigrams are derived, as would be the case in Yarrow Stick construction.
HU KUA (Motivational Hexagram), This is a Hexagram that is formed from the Internals of the PEN KUA without regard to the Changing Lines of the PEN KUA.
The 5th Line of the PEN KUA Rises and becomes the 6th Line of the HU KUA Hexagram
The 4th Line of the PEN KUA Rises and becomes the 5th Line of the HU KUA Hexagram
The 3rd Line of the PEN KUA Rises and becomes the 4th Line of the HU KUA Hexagram
The 4th Line of the PEN KUA Lowers and becomes the 3rd Line of the HU KUA Hexagram
The 3rd Line of the PEN KUA Lowers and becomes the 2nd Line of the HU KUA Hexagram
The 2nd Line of the PEN KUA Lowers and becomes the 1st Line of the HU KUA Hexagram
As a result there are only 16 HU KUA hexagrams. Both of the Trigrams of the HU KUA are YUNG.
HU TIEN. A cyclic presentation of each of the Trigrams in their position relating to Time and Influence. Inside the HU TIEN is the Magic Square of 15. Calligraphic representations of the HU TIEN, in the Chinese style, are circular; but we have chosen to represent the HU TIEN as a square emanating out of the Magic Square of 15 as it adds to clarity and greater understanding.
 The HU TIEN is also referred to the Later Heaven Sequence, believed to have been originated by King Wen. There is also the Early Heaven Sequence which is believed to have been originated by Fu Hsi that is based upon polarity. It is used in conjunction with Astrology and is regarded as an Advanced Topic.
 The Magic Square of 15 is also an Advanced Topic --- where any three of the numbers added in sequence total 15 with the exception of the 10, which appears with the 5 in the center of the Square where they represent opposite influences. This Magic Square is also used in determining the 10 Celestial Stems.
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I CHING. The Canon (or Book) of Changes. The Oriental philosophy that is based upon the concept that all things undergo change, no matter how resolute or hidden. YIN and YANG are the familiar Two Principles of the I CHING.
INDIVIDUAL. The character associated with the 3rd Line of a Hexagram --- the "Individual" or "Self" interests of this line normally tend to be in conflict with the interests of "Society" (Line 4). The I CHING gives less regard to "Individual" interests than to those of "Community."
INFERIOR PERSON. A person regarded as being cast about by the whims of fate, "About Inferior Persons the I CHING makes predictions." (See also "Superior Person.")
INSTINCT. The character associated with the 1st Line of a Hexagram --- the primal behavior or response at the beginning or awareness, conditioned by either an inborn tendency or acquired attitude.
INTUITION. Similar to "Instinct" and also associated with the 1st Line of a Hexagram, but more closely related to a knowledge without conscious reasoning or logical evaluation. The response from the I CHING Oracle is regarded as intuitive since there is the unconscious of positions within the Cosmic Order or "Tao."
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KE. The concept of Mutual Destruction, in conjunction with the Five Elements, is used in determining the influences of the Trigrams as they resolve a Divination. Its opposite is SHENG.
The HOST, Element Destroys ... KE By ... and is Fearful of SHENG As ...
CH'IEN or TUI, Metal SUN or CHEN, Wood Cutting or Chopping LI, Fire.
K'AN, Water LI, Fire Quenching K'UN or KEN, Earth.
SUN or CHEN, Wood K'UN or KEN, Earth Growing from CH'IEN and TUI, Metal.
LI, Fire CH'IEN or TUI, Metal, Melting K'AN, Water.
K'UN or KEN, Earth, K'AN, Water, Absorption SUN or CHEN, Wood.
NOTE: This is a subject that borders as an "Advanced Topic" of the I CHING and is used by more serious students and Players.
KUA TSI. The decision or judgment of a Hexagram, accredited to King Wen.
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LI. The literal philosophy of the I CHING, and not to be confused with the Trigram LI. It includes all of the writings, judgments, and images of the I CHING.
LIUNG YI. Duality. Change, through to the Unchanged, from one Principle to the other; and all the conditional positions in between.
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MAN-MADE. The I CHING views and makes evaluations upon natural phenomena, but two Hexagrams unexpectedly relate to "Man-Made" objects:
CHING #48 The Well. "Nourishment" and sources of wisdom to benefit all.
TING #50 The Cauldron. "Nourishment" for the "Attainment" of noble goals.
MARRIAGE. Even in antiquity mutual consideration and respect were important precepts of "Marriage." Several lines within the I CHING relate to "Marriage," as do specific Prophesies, and 4 Hexagrams in particular address "Marriage:"
HSIEN #31 Mutual attraction and wooing to "Marriage."
HENG #32 Enduring relationships existing within the "Marriage."
CHIEN #53 Gradual development following the act of "Marriage."
KUEI MEI #54 An unsuccessful "Marriage" due to incorrect motives.
Note that a "Marriage" is not limited to the wedded relationship between a man and a woman.
MASTER. A "Player" regarded as supremely competent in a particular endeavor, or endeavors, such as the I CHING. Peers and colleagues confer the title of "Master" as a sign of deep respect and confidence --- assigning the title of "Master" to one's self tends only to expose oneself as a charlatan.
MATCHED. See "Correspondence."
MISFORTUNE. Unfavorable position relative to the question of the Oracle. Probably enduring and possibly financial. The anti-thesis of "Good Fortune."
MISTAKE. See "Error."
MODESTY. Oriental cultures, even today, regard "Modesty" as a high virtue which is associated with inner confidence and peace requiring no ostentatious display. Occidental cultures tend to associate "Modesty" with embarrassment or meagerness. In addition to language barriers, this cultural difference often furthers misunderstanding between the ethnic divisions.
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NATURAL. An attribute associated with a Line of a Hexagram. This "Naturalness" associates with the favorableness of either a Strong (Solid - YANG) or Yielding (Broken - YIN) influence when related with the character of the Line. The "Natural" states of the Lines are:
6 Wisdom Yielding, Broken YIN
5 Authority Strong, Solid YANG
4 Society Yielding, Broken YIN
3 Individual Strong, Solid YANG
2 Aspirations Yielding, Broken YIN
3 Instinct Strong, Solid YANG
This topic is detailed in "STEP 2, CONSTRUCTION OF THE HEXAGRAMS, " in I CHING, The Illustrated Primer.
NOURISHMENT. When addressed by the I CHING "Nourishment" is not merely a physical fulfillment but more a time of resting, recuperation, or the gathering of strength, including the gathering of strength from spiritual considerations or sources. There are four Hexagrams which specifically address "Nourishment":
HSU # 5 The "Nourishment derived from resting and patiently waiting."
I #27 "Nourishment" for growing --- food and cultural cultivation.
CHING #48 "Nourishment" for common benefit --- drink and wisdom.
TING #50 "Nourishment" of high ideals for pursuit of noble goals.
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OBJECT (LINE). Indirect influence either upon or by the "Prophesy." Each Hexagram has an "Object" Line which is within an "Object" Trigram. Both this Line and the Trigram contain the indirect influences.
ORACLE. The composite and collective wisdom of the I CHING which, having been acquired through the centuries, is passed on to the sincere "Player."
OTHER (Line). The personification of the "Object" of the Hexagram as a Line.
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PEN KUA (Present/Recent Past Hexagram). This Hexagram is formed by the Toss of Coins, the Separation of Yarrow Sticks, a Random Number Generator, or by any other means satisfactory to the Player. It will contain the basis of the ZHAN. The Changing Lines will be in this Hexagram and it provides the basis for forming the HU KUA (Internal, Motivational, and/or Health) Hexagram; or the SHIH KUA (Future Hexagram).
PLAYER. A participant, in any varying degree, of a particular endeavor such as I CHING, T'AI CHI CHUAN (an exercise and physical training system), etc. In the Orient "Player" is not necessarily associated with "Games" and, indeed, can be an extremely serious participant.
PROPHESY. The response of the I CHING Oracle which is interpreted and evaluated by the individual according to the circumstances relating to the "Subject." Also the ZHAN.
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REGRET. The sorrow or remorse, usually visited upon one's self, which arises from an intemperate act or attitude.
REWARD. Advantage received from one's own efforts. A promotion, raise, or esteemed recognition which is individually fulfilling.
RULING (LINE). Either One or Two Lines of a Hexagram, the selection of which is made by the application of certain guidelines relating to the center Line of each composing Trigram, the 5th (and Authoritive) Line, and the structure of the Hexagram itself. Step 3 gives a more detailed explanation of the Ruling Lines within each Hexagram as their selection is specific to each Hexagram and overly generalized definitions are NOT accurate.
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SAGE. A wise person who has chosen to remain aloof from the daily turmoil to create incomparable values for the future. Our Book Cover and opening graphic depicts the "Sage" presenting the "T'ai Chi," with its YIN and YANG elements, to the "Player."
SAN TSAI. The Three Powers, or Lines, of a Trigram. The uppermost the Heavenly Power, the lower the Earthly Power, and in the middle the Power of Humankind as a result of the interaction between the YIN and YANG of the other two Lines.
SEQUENCE - CALENDARY. The Sequence according to the Natural Order relating to the time of the Year. The 4 seasons are #29 K'AN (Winter), #52 KEN, #30 LI, and #58 TUI. The Twelve Months are #24 FU (December after the Solstice), #19 LIN, #11 T'AI, #34 TA CHUAN, #43 KUAI, #1 CH'IEN, #44 KOU, #33 TUN, #12 P'I, #20 KUAN, #23 PO, and #2 K'UN. The other Hexagrams represent the divisions by approximate weeks. This topic is detailed in "STEP 2, THE CONSTRUCTION OF THE HEXAGRAMS," I CHING, The Illustrated Primer.
SEQUENCE - ORDERLY. The Sequence, according to King Wen, which explains the regular numbering progression of the Hexagrams (from #1 to #64) with their inter-relationship with the Hexagrams numerically on either side. These definitions are topically detailed throughout "STEP 2, THE CONSTRUCTION OF THE HEXAGRAMS."
SEQUENCE - POLARITY. The sequence that represents the Hexagrams from total YANG as it progresses to total YIN (the complete transition). This begins with the separation of the T'ai Chi (The Absolute) into Yang and Yin (the Two Principles), then the next division into Greater Yang, Lesser Yin, Lesser Yang, and Greater Yin (the Four Symbols). The next Division is into the Eight Trigrams, and the Last Divisions are into the Sixty-Four Hexagrams. The are other representations as well; and these are all portrayed in "STEP 2, THE CONSTRUCTION OF THE HEXAGRAMS," and especially as shown in the Table "THE RELATIONSHIPS OF THE 64 HEXAGRAMS."
SELF (Line). The personification of the "Subject" of the Hexagram as a Line.
SHENG. The concept of Mutual Creation, in conjunction with the Five Elements, is used in determining the influences of the Trigrams as they resolve a Divination. Its opposite is KE.
The HOST, Element Creates ... KE By ... and is Close to KE As ...
CH'IEN or TUI, Metal K'AN, Water Condensation, K'UN or KEN, Earth.
K'AN, Water SUN or CHEN, Wood Nourishing, CH'IEN or TUI, Metal.
SUN or CHEN, Wood LI, Fire Fueling, K'AN, Water.
LI, Fire K'UN or KEN, Earth Reduction to Ashes, SUN or CHEN, Wood.
K'UN or KEN, Earth CH'IEN or TUI, Metal, Producing Ore, LI, Fire.
NOTE: This is a subject that borders as an "Advanced Topic" of the I CHING and is used by more serious students and Players.
SHIH KUA (Future Hexagram). This Hexagram is formed by applying the Changing Line(s) of the PEN KUA. It transcends the HU KUA and completes the determination of the Divination, or ZHAN. Both of the Trigrams of the SHIH KUA are YUNG Trigrams.
>SHU. Number(s), used to deduce the chance of a Future event based upon what has happened in the Past.
SIGNIFICANT. Either the 2nd or 5th Line of a Hexagram which is "Significant" in determining the "Theme" of the Hexagram.
SOCIETY. The character associated with the 4th Line of a Hexagram --- the position of expressing "Authority" to the "Community" and vice-versa. In antiquity, as well as today, a Minister occupies this normally precarious position.
SUBJECT (LINE). Direct influence either upon or by the "Prophesy." Each Hexagram has a "Subject" Line which is within a "Subject" Trigram. Both this Line and the Trigram contain the predominant influences.
SUCCESS. A significant and productive degree of accomplishment relative to the question asked of the Oracle. Existing in degrees, it can only be evaluated by the individual "Player."
SUPERIOR PERSON. A person considered to be one who is striving for improvement in lifestyle, behavior, and the accumulation of Wisdom, "To Superior Persons the I CHING gives are advice." (See also "Inferior Person.")
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T'AI CHI. The Absolute, where the YIN and YANG have coalesced and where they divide from.
THEME (of a Hexagram). Relates to the timely circumstances the Hexagram represents. In this work the Theme is formed as "... is a Time ... characterized by (with) ..." and is the interpreted and expanded definition of the ancient text. The Theme will provide the Player a deeper understanding of the circumstances implied by the Hexagram and insight such as "Good Fortune, Progress, Success, Danger, Misfortune, Etc." some of the more simple Themes are "Travel," "Nourishment," and "Marriage," to name some examples.
TI (KUA). The Single Trigram in a Divination that represents the most simple and basic condition. It is found as the "Quietest" or the Lower Trigram of the PEN KUA. It acts with the YUNG (KUA) in forming either the KE or SHENG of a Divination.
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UNDERTAKINGS. Activities requiring personal character, stamina, capital, etc. It is more commonly associated with "Great Undertakings," which referred to the crossing of the Yellow River in ancient times --- then a particularly dangerous feat. Also notice the appearance of the river in the Illustrations where "Undertakings" or "Great Undertaking" are indicated.
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VARIANT. Either the 3rd or 4th Line of a Hexagram which varies the Theme of the Hexagram with either favorable or unfavorable interactions between "Society" and the "Individual."
VICTORY. Success associated with the defeat of an adversary or an adversarial situation. "Victory" is never allowed to continue on to perdition of the vanquished.
VIRTUE. Excellence in morality, goodness, and "Correctness," as they relate to behavior and attitudes. The passing of knowledge to attain "Virtue" is the true commitment of the I CHING.
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WISDOM. The character associated with the 6th Line of a Hexagram --- the knowledge, experience, and perception which leads one through the proper courses in life. ""Wisdom" is manifested in correct behavior. (This is also the "Sage" Line.)
WISE ADVICE. Advice or counsel sought and applied from another, or others, who are assumed to have particular knowledge and experience relating to the question of the Oracle. "Wise Advice" is derived from the ancient phrase "See a Great Man." The source of this counsel is also implied from a spiritual source such as God, when relating to Western religions, and the Tao of Eastern religions.
WU CHI. The Primordial Pre-Existence out of which the YIN and YANG separate, create the TAO, and from which the T'AI CHI is formed.
WU HSING. Known as the Five Elements and the dynamics they represent in determining a ZHAN. These are further explored in the topics of KE and SHENG within this vocabulary.
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YANG.  The Principle of Heavenly attributes, and associated with light, male, high, positive, father. (Of the two principles neither accede or subordinate of the other). The balancing Principle is YIN.
YAO. A Bar, Either YANG or YIN used to represent a Line of a Trigram or Hexagram, and hence used to represent and individual Line.
YAO TSI. The meaning of each of the six Lines of a Hexagram, accredited to The Duke of Chou.
YARROW STICKS. "Yarrow Sticks" are made from reeds of any of a perennial plant of the A'chillea family. These plants grow abundantly in marshy lands and tidal basins. They are as indigenous to North America as they are China, and the rest of the world.
 Fifty reeds are collected and then cut to a width of 15 to 18 inches, the leaves and chaff are stripped, then the reeds are dried. Once dried, the "Yarrow Sticks" are wrapped in a Red silk cloth, then slipped into a Black silk bag, and finally into a capped bamboo or hardwood cylinder approximately 3 inches in diameter which is referred to as the TU. Six "Yao Bars" (about 1 by 12 inches with YANG one side and YIN on the other) are used to represent the Hexagram.
 Commercial production of the "Yarrow Sticks" and "Yao Bars" of such products is generally cost prohibitive, but I CHING devotees will often undertake this effort themselves. In our text we have included a description of how to consult the Oracle with the use of "Yarrow Sticks" and it is an option in I CHING ON LINE.
YIN.  The Principle of Earthly attributes, and associated with dark, female, low, negative, mother. (Of the two principles neither accede or subordinate of the other). The balancing Principle is YANG.
YOU. Assumed to be the Superior Person striving for high ideals and goals, which includes the reaching on one's inner consciousness. Ancient texts actually refer to "Superior Man" in this capacity, but the term is not generally used in our text. "You" is also assumed to be the "Subject" of the consultation. When the "Subject" is taken as another then He, She, It, etc., can be used as appropriate.
YOUR. Indicates possession of characteristics or attributes by "YOU."
YUNG. The Five Trigrams in a Divination that represent the complex and acquired conditions. They are the Two Trigrams of both the HU KUA and the SHIH KUA, and the remaining Trigram of the PEN KUA. It acts with the TI (KUA) in forming either the KE or SHENG of a Divination.
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ZHAN. A Divination produced from within the I CHING.
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